Circuit Board Repair Guide > BGA Component Rework Procedures > 9.2.1 Development of a BGA Component Rework Profile Using the Standard Method

Development of a BGA Component Rework Profile Using the Standard Method

Repair Circuit Boards | Repair SMT Pads | Repair BGA Pads | Repair Lands | Repair Edge Contacts
Repair a Conductor | Plated Hole Repair | Base Board Repair | Replace Solder Mask or Coatings

This process covers the development and criteria for establishing profiles for BGA removal and replacement.

Related Procedure References
CTC 1.0 Foreword - Circuit Board Repair Guide
CTC 2.1 Handling Electronic Assemblies
CTC 2.2.1 How to Clean a Circuit Board
CTC 2.2.2 Cleaning Circuit Boards, Aqueous Batch Process
CTC 2.5 Baking and Preheating of Printed Circuit Boards
IPC/Jedec J-STD-020A
IPC/Jedec J-STD-033
Man working at BGA rework station
Ball Grid Array Rework Station

Tools and Materials
Ball Mills Oven
BGA Specific Nozzle Precision Drill Press
Cleaner Scrap Development Assembly
Cleaning Wipes Scrap BGA Components
Flux, Liquid Tape, Kapton
Microscope Temperature Recorder, and Analysis Software
Hot Air Rework Station Thermal Adhesive
Hand Held Digital Thermometer  

Caution - Operator Safety
A thorough review of the equipment manual and comprehensive training are mandatory. Daily maintenance is essential. Consult the equipment manual for more information.

Caution - Component Sensitivity
This method may subject the component to extreme temperatures. Evaluate the component's tolerance to heat prior to using this method. Plastic BGA's are especially sensitive to moisture absorption. Carefully evaluate pre bake requirements.

Caution - Circuit Board Sensitivity
PC Boards are made from a great variety of materials. When subjected to the high temperatures they are susceptible to the following types of damage:

1. Layer delamination.
2. Copper delamination, separation of pads, barrels of inner layers.
3. Burns and solder mask chipping.
4. Warp.

Each circuit board must be treated individually and scrutinized carefully for its reaction to heat. If a series of circuit boards are to be reworked, the first several should be handled with extreme care until a reliable procedure is established.

Printed Board Type: R/F/W/C  |  Skill Level: Advanced  |  Conformance Level: High  |  Rev.: E  |  Rev. Date: Jul 7, 2000

Flux manufacturers reflow profile

Figure 1: Flux manufacturers reflow profile.

General Instructions
Your solder paste manufacturer will have a recommended time/temperature curve for these applications. It is recommended as guidance for profile development. (See Figure 1).
1.   One fully assembled development board is required.
2.   4 to 6 sample BGA components for development may be required.
A steady state operating temperature or threshold must be established prior to launching the reflow cycle. A consistent temperature starting point is necessary for repeatable results. Between 110° C and 140° C is recommended.
Precision drill press

Figure 2: Precision drill press.

BGA Soldering Profile Instructions
The BGA replacement profile may require more time and even more heat (usually not more than 20 seconds time) to not only reflow all joints but to properly evacuate flux gases and create uniform joints across the package.
Using a precision drill press (See figure 2), drill through the bottom of the board as follows: One hole in the center of the part, preferably into one of the center balls, if available. One hole into the corner of the part, preferably into one of the balls in the outside row. One hole through the opposite corner of the part into one of the balls. Another hole may be also drilled or substituted for this last one, this being one drilled on the side of the component in an outside row. (See Figure 3).

Thermocouple locations

Figure 3: Thermocouple locations.

If the BGA component is susceptible to high temperatures, additional thermocouples may be placed into the device itself to measure the vertical temperature differential (Z- axis).

Ideal thermocouple placement.

Figure 4: Ideal thermocouple placement.

Insert thermocouples into the holes. Ideally the thermocouple is secured in place by the solder of the pad that the thermocouple is placed in. (See Figure 4) Otherwise secure in place with Kapton tape, and thermal adhesive. Additional thermocouples will also be placed on the top of the circuit board, about two inches from the site and on the bottom side under the site. These thermocouples may be merely taped in place.
Select an appropriate nozzle and install. Be mindful of the component height and clearance area around the component.
Secure the board in place with appropriate tooling, clamps, and pins. The board should be secure but allowed to move with thermal expansion. Antistatic solder wave fixtures may be used to prevent warp.
Temperature data using analysis software

Figure 5: Temperature data using analysis software.

5.   Connect the thermocouples (drilled locations) to a temperature recorder. Connect other monitoring thermocouples to hand held digital thermometers as required. Temperature recorder should present graphic display as per Figure 5.
Select soldering process parameters from similar existing profiles. If none are available, contact the manufacturer of the rework station.
It may be advisable to shut off all vacuum commands when developing a removal profile to prevent inadvertent component removal.
Pre bake the board to drive out accumulated moisture. The length of pre bake will be affected by the board's environmental exposure. A pre bake temperature of
75 °C to 100 °C is recommended.
7.   Place a pre baked board onto the fixture.
Establish a bottom side, under part threshold temperature from which to begin the reflow ramp. 140°C underneath the part should correspond to approximately 90°C at 2" from the nozzle on the board's top side. Choosing a starting point in this approximate temperature range will help to reduce localized warping during BGA ball reflow.
9.   Run the process and monitor the temperature of the bottom and top of the board, next to and under the component.
10.  Disconnect the thermocouples and download recorded data.
Analyze the data and optimize parameters for reliable rework as follows:

1.  Maximum temperature at the solder ball / board pad interface should be 205°C.
2. Minimize temperature differential to less than 15°C for internal thermocouples measuring the various solder ball / board pad interface.
3. Time above 183°C should be between 30° and 60° seconds.
4. Temperature rise and fall should not exceed 3°C/ Sec ramp.
12.  Make changes to process settings as applicable.
13.  Run the process and return to step 13.
14.  Examine the surface under the component for warp.
Excessive localized warp may be reduced by increasing the pre ramp temperature threshold. A convection oven can be used to decrease the thermally induced stress caused by the process. Even heating across the whole board may be required.
Develop Removal Process
The component will typically release from its pads when two of the thermocouples measuring joint locations pass the 183° C mark. In order to reduce mask, part or board damage due to excessive heat, the removal cycle is typically shorter than the replacement cycle. Reflow the joints just enough to effect removal.
1.   Copy the parameters of the soldering profile to develop the removal profile.
2.   Change process parameters as needed.
Connect the thermocouples (drilled locations) to the temperature recorder. Connect monitoring thermocouples to the hand held digital thermometers.
4.   Run the process and monitor externally connected thermocouples.
5.   Disconnect the thermocouples and download recorded data.
Analyze the data and optimize parameters for reliable rework as follows:

1. Maximum temperature at any location should be 210°C.
2. Minimize temperature differential to less than 15°C for internal thermocouples.
3. Time above 183° C should be between 30 - 60 seconds.
7.   Adjust process parameters as needed.
Determine the time in the process when all ball locations reach 183°C. Note the bottom side monitoring thermocouple temperature.
9.   Reconnect thermocouples.
10.  Inject flux under the component.
11.  Run process and lift nozzle three seconds after reflow has been reached.
12.  Remove the component using vacuum tool.
If software controls the vacuum, select the vacuum on command for all events. This will lift the component as soon as reflow temperatures have been reached.
If the component can not be removed, analyze the temperature data and adjust the parameters. Return to step 10.
Inspect the BGA footprint area for signs of unexpected overheating, solder mask or pad damage.

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